Regenerative Orthopedic Medicine

What is the PST?
Pulsed Signal Therapy (PST)

The PST® was developed and patented in the United States by Dr. Richard Markoll, a rheumatologist and physicist after 20 years of research and was approved by the Ministry of Health of the European Union in 1996.

It is a treatment for chronic pain of non-invasive, non-painful skeletal and joint muscle origin and without known side effects.

How does it work:

PST® is a therapy with continuously variable electromagnetic fields thus mimicking natural electromechanical stimuli. It uses a coil system, which generates magnetic fields with virtually homogeneous modulated pulses. With a magnetic field intensity of at least 12.5 Gauss in a frequency range of 1 to 30 Hertz, thus stimulating the process of regeneration of the body in all connective tissues (cartilage, bones, tendons, muscles and ligaments).

The clinical use of pulsed signal therapy (PSTTM) has proven effective in treating more than 70,000 patients suffering from various forms of arthrosic joint disease. Its effectiveness is that the electrical potential produced by the PST mimics the intrinsic pressure transmission potentials that occur naturally in cartilaginous tissue, this occurs through the production of glucosamine, and chondroitin sulfate, leading to a higher concentration of proteoglycans and condorites (cartilage cells) leading to healthy cartilage.

  • Osteoarthritis (wear)
  • Musculoskeletal and soft tissue problems
  • Enthesopathies (Epicondylitis, epitrocellitis, rotator cuff injuries).
  • Repetitive stress injuries
  • sports injuries
  • Pseudoarthrosis
  • Acceleration of fracture consolidation.

Each one-hour therapy session, joint or body area is treated in a closed coil. A treatment consists of 9 or 12 sessions depending on the pathology. The sessions can be on days in a row or up to 2 sessions per day.

Pulsatile signal therapy is a high-tech treatment for pain that is difficult to handle, non-surgical, non-invasive and without side effects, has a long-term anti-inflammatory / analgesic effect.

To guarantee the success of the therapy, 12 sessions of 60 minutes are needed on continuous days without interruption to achieve an optimal result.

The final effect can be expected four to five weeks after finishing the treatment.

Medical indications

  1. Post surgical pain
  2. Sciatica
  3. Chronic pain
  4. Spine pain
  5. Degenerative problems of the knee and shoulder hip (osteoarthritis or wear)
  6. Cartilage lesions (Chondromalacia)
  7. Tendinitis
  8. Bursitis
  9. Tunnel syndrome
  10. Subachromial impingement, rotator cuff
  11. Cervical and lumbar hernias
  12. Arthritis

The Pulsatile signal therapy is licensed TUV with certificate numbers # G1 02 01 27360 013 ( Annexed )

It also has the ISO 9001 # 70016483 ( Annexed )

Scientific studies in universities such as YALE School of medicine, Cochin Hospital in Paris, Niguarda Hospital in Milan Italy, Hopsital Munich and Changai


B) The best option in efficiency and cost.

Cost per session PST treatment

The session protocol is 9 or 12 sessions depending on the diagnosis and area to be treated.

C) Economic benefits surgery / treatment:

COST REDUCTION from 50 to 80% when compared to surgical procedures.


PST®, pulsatile signal therapy, was developed and patented * in the USA. by Dr. Richard Markoll Physicist and PST Rheumatologist, Signals For Motion, is the result of 20 years of research and was approved by the European Union Ministry of Health since 1996.

It is a Treatment for chronic pain of skeletal muscle, joint, chondrogenesis and osteogenesis.

PST® is a gentle and natural healing method:

  • No pain, not invasive.
  • signals that emulate those emitted by the body.
  • No known side effects.
  • Direct anti-inflammatory effect.
  • stimulation of the body’s regeneration process in all connective tissues (cartilage, bones, tendons, muscles and ligaments)

From the Basset studies in the 60’s and the theory of flow potentials (Streaming Potentials) the processes and mechanisms of bone and cartilage regeneration are known

PST is a therapy with continuously variable electromagnetic fields thus mimicking natural electromechanical stimuli. It uses a coil system, which generates magnetic fields with virtually homogeneous modulated pulses. With a magnetic field strength of at least 12.5 Gauss in a frequency range of 1 to 30 Hertz.

During a one-hour therapy session, the joint or body area is treated in a closed coil. A treatment consists of 12 one-hour sessions held on consecutive days (except weekend if necessary).

The indications for treatment in addition to osteoarthritis are musculoskeletal soft tissue problems, enthesopathy and repetitive stress injuries, sports injuries, as well as bone problems such as union delays, pseudoarthrosis and acceleration of consolidation.

How does PST® work?

The PST can be explained by the circulation of bioelectric potentials (streaming potentials) in the extracellular matrix of the cartilage. The weight load on the cartilage produces electrical potentials in the joint thanks to the movement of the liquid with the migration of the electro-positive free hydrogen ions, moving away from the sulphydryl radicals (SO3). These physicochemical conditions cause the appearance of piezoelectric signals, also potential flow calls. Chondrocyte biosynthesis depends on these flow potentials, physical pressure and frequency. The electromagnetic signal of the Artificially estimates the microelectric signals produced by the weight load in the joint and in the bone producing chondrogenesis and osteogenesis. A direct anti-inflammatory effect has also been observed.

Clinical Effects

  • Pain reduction
  • Improvement of joint function
  • Acceleration of the healing process of injuries
  • Stimulation of chondrocyte activity on flow potentials with regeneration of cartilaginous tissue
  • Stimulation of osteoblastic activity thanks to the piezoelectric effect stabilizing bone mass density

What is special about the PST® signal?

The main differences between PST and traditional magnetic field therapies, such as the Kraus-Lechner coil (which alternates the direction of the magnetic field), can be clearly distinguished in the illustrations and graphs below.

1. The Kraus-Lechner coil system

This coil system produces an alternating sense magnetic field generated by a sine wave. This signal is not the same as what normally happens in the body because the electrical activity of each living organism only follows a direct orientation current process.

2. PEMF – Pulsed Electromagnetic Fields

The PEMF, which works with electromagnetic fields uses a direct orientation signal that is constantly repeated. It is transmitted with a specific intensity and a particular frequency that remains constant during treatment. The PST® should be considered as the logical evolution of the PEMF. Work and research on PEMF, including “in vitro” studies with cell culture, were the key elements in the development of PST® technology by Dr. Richard Markoll.

3. PST® – Pulsative Signal Therapy

Unlike PEMF, the PST® generates a pure magnetic field output signal that uses direct current of unidirectional biological frequencies. The “waveform” is almost rectangular. The PST produces pulsed electromagnetic signals varying the amplitude and phase. The intensity of the impulses is between 10 and 20 Hertz. Therefore the PST® operates at a relatively low frequency, and at low energy field strength


  • Chronic skeletal muscle pain.
  • Chronic skeletal muscle pain.
  • Overuse injuries.
  • Osteoarthritis
  • Spondylodiscarthrosis
  • Arthritis.
  • Osgood-schlatter sever.
  • Metaphyseal lesions
  • Chondrogenesis (chondromalasia, intervertebral disc lesions, chondral lesions, meniscal degeneration)
  • Delay of the union.
  • Pseudoarthrosis
  • Post prosthetic pain.
  • Post-surgical pain
  • Non-surgical treatment in herniated discs, still large with or without radiculopathy.
  • Dyscarthrosis
  • Osteoarthritis facet.
  • Tendonitis
  • Epitrocleitis
  • Epicondylitis
  • Plantar fasciitis
  • Rotator cuff tendonitis.
  • Pinching syndrome
  • Capsulitis
  • Costochondritis
  • Sacralgias
  • Coxalgia
  • Chronic sprains
  • Non-specific joint pain
  1. Clinical assessment is required.
  2. 9 or 12 sessions of one hour.
  3. Normal protocol: one session per day …
  4. 5 sessions applied continuously are required to rest one or two days on the weekend.
  5. The final result is affected by skipping scheduled days or interrupting treatment.
  6. Fast protocol: two sessions a day with a separation of 4 or more hours.
  7. Important Recommendations:

Offer comfort and convenience to the patient as it will be an hour in the treatment.

  1. For optimal results, proper electrode placement is important.

Results and Evolution

85% patients obtain a significant or total improvement. Of that 85%, 50% report partial improvement after the 5th or 6th session and gradually improve over the next 6 to 8 weeks.

The other 50% do not report improvement during treatment, will gradually start 6 to 8 weeks post treatment. Some patients experience pain during or the first 3 weeks after treatment, refer to it as a different pain and do not have a presentation pattern, PRN analgesics may be given.

Partial improvement during treatment or the presence of pain during or after treatment is a sign of a good prognosis, but it is necessary to wait 6 to 8 weeks to evaluate the final results. The results are decreased pain, inflammation and improved function..

What do the acronym PST mean?

“Pulsed Signal Therapy”, that is, Pulsatile Signal Therapy.

What is the PST?

PST is a painless and non-invasive therapy that was developed over 15 years ago by Dr. R. Markoll.

PST® treats several degenerative musculoskeletal disorders such as osteoarthritis, osteoporosis and injuries / injuries caused by physical or sports practice such as bone fractures.

PST® mimics the signals of our body to naturally regenerate the production of cartilage, bone and joint tissues. The basis of the technology is the emission of pulsating signals that go directly to the area to be treated.

PST® has 53 patents, and more than 200 medical articles and research studies on PST® that prove the success of treatment on the corresponding disorders were published.

How does PST® differ from conventional magnetic field therapies?

In the case of the PST® the magnetic field is only used for the transmission of the pulsating signals. The magnetic field has no direct effect on the joint.

In contrast to classical magnetic field therapy, the PST® acts at very low frequencies. The form of energy applied with PST® is a direct current while magnetic field therapy uses alternating current.

PST® is characterized by a specific signal design that positively stimulates tissue, that is, it stimulates a natural healing mechanism in the body due to the unique characteristics of the signal.

For whom can PST® treatment be beneficial?

PST® is a renowned original technology used throughout the world to treat various degenerative musculoskeletal disorders such as osteoarthritis or injuries resulting from sports or physical practice.

Since when does PST® technology exist?

Dr. R. Markoll pioneered and developed the technology in the 1970s, beginning the first clinical study conducted on humans in the 1980s.

Since then hundreds of thousands of patients used the PST® to improve their condition thanks to the success of the treatment, and hundreds of doctors throughout the world also propose the PST® among all their services.

How does PST® work?

Bones and cartilage are living tissues that need constant regeneration. All joints of the body are surrounded by an electric field that stimulates the process of tissue regeneration in active individuals and in good health. The activity causes a physical pressure on the cartilage that activates these bioelectric repair processes.

Immobility and lack of exercise lead to atrophy. Traumatic injuries, osteoporosis and other diseases also cause a disruption of this energy field and hinder its regenerative properties.

PST® uses a specific biological signal on the affected joint, cartilage and connective tissue and mimics the potential movement of the body that produces the pressure.

So the electric field is restored, the pain and swelling decrease progressively and for most patients it leads to a total recovery.

How successful is PST® in the treatment of appropriate conditions?

Over the past 25 years, double-blind clinical studies, such as other in vivo and in vitro studies have led to the proven efficacy of PST® in the treatment of conditions related to bone, cartilage and joint tissue degeneration.

All the studies carried out reached impressive success rates, until a total recovery for the majority of patients.

The proportion of success depends, to some extent, on the type and intensity of the condition, but cannot be communicated online since only health professionals are legally authorized to examine these clinical studies.

Do you have a list of all publications, presentations and research studies conducted on the PST®?

Yes. It is an exhaustive list. We ask you to note that not all articles published on the PST® are available online because more than 2,500 abstracts and more than 200 publications and presentations were written.

Is the PST® patented technology?

Yes. PST® is a technology with registered trademark. PST® technology is currently protected by 53 process and model patents.

Is the use of PST® technology safe? Is there any side effect?

For 35 years of research, PST® treatments have not been linked to immediate or long-term side effects. It is a safe technology that has been used in more than 500,000 patients.

Does the PST® involve a surgical operation?

Not. PST® is a non-invasive technology that does NOT require surgery. The treatment is also painless and, after 35 years of research, there are no known side effects.

Can PST® treatments be carried out in total autonomy or can they be carried out with other treatments, after surgery or also as part of a wellness treatment?

PST® treatments can be carried out in total autonomy, or in addition to other treatments when recommended by the doctor, or as part of a wellness program and also after a surgical operation.

The PST® sends a specific patented signal to the treatment area. With or without surgery, PST® helps the body heal itself.

If the ligament was stripped of the bone, then surgery to repair it cannot be avoided. However, PST® can be used after surgery to accelerate recovery.

Athletes also use the PST® as a preventive measure to keep bones, joints and cartilage tissues in good condition.

Can PST® be used to treat animals as it is done with humans?

Yes. PST® can be used on humans and animals.

PST® regularly treats small and large mammals such as horses, dogs and cats.

PST® certified veterinarians are found mostly in the U.S.

Where can one be treated by PST®?

PST® treatments can be carried out in an official PST® center such as Fisiomedix and Rehabilita in the City of Monterrey N.L or in Olympia integral sports medicine in the City of Cancun Q. Roo.

PST® centers meet the strict requirements of each country where they are located.

How many sessions are needed to perform a complete therapy?

Depending on the type and intensity of your condition, a complete treatment meets nine or twelve one-hour sessions, carried out on consecutive days.

We ask you to note that the treatment cannot be interrupted for more than 48 consecutive hours in all cases. In case it is, that would affect the results of the therapy.

How is a PST® treatment performed?

If patients go to a PST® center, a specialist or expert carrying the certification and PST® training takes care of the correct application of the treatment. Patients are comfortably installed in the appropriate PST® equipment until the treatment time is over.

If patients do the treatment at home, they only need to place the Personal Compact® applicators directly on the area to be treated.

In any case, it is very important that the biophysically active signal emitted by the PST® device be directly sent to the joint that needs to be treated.

The treatment is non-invasive (for example does not involve surgery) and painless, and patients can read, watch TV, listen to music or anything else during the session.

If necessary, the treatment can be interrupted but not more than 48 consecutive hours.

How many joints can be treated at the same time?

Only one joint area can be treated during each therapy (9 or 12 sessions). The treatment of another joint can begin immediately after the end of the first treatment.

Joint joints of the upper and lower extremities cannot be treated at the same time.

There are exceptions for the lumbar spine, shoulders and hip, where several joints can be treated at the same time.

Is therapy painful?

Not. Certain patients feel a little tingling / tickling or a sensation of heat during treatment. At the beginning of the treatment, a modification or amplification of the pain may also occur. However, there is no need to worry as this happens in a temporary way and is considered as a positive reaction to therapy.


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